posted by youknowit101
I asked a 问题 a bit 以前 asking what bothers 你 about Bella’s pregnancy. We got some very interesting answers, thank you. We are now here to respond to the points made.
(Keep in mind that we did not consult anyone associated with the creation of the Twilight Series. We just used logic and text to make sense of everything.)
(I’m going to be using words like penis and orgasm, so if 你 haven’t had a certain talk with your parents yet, 你 probably shouldn’t read this)
First, we’ll address the science of it.
SPERM AND SEMEN
How does Edward have sperm and semen?
Blood is not used to produce sperm 或者 semen in humans, but the blood the 吸血鬼 ingest can help with the production of sperm and semen in vampires.
Sperm is composed of:
ascorbic acid (vitamin C, for tissue maintenance) --- Ascorbic acid is another term for Vitamin C. In animals, (by animals, I’m talking about humans also) a small amount of ascorbate concentration is absorbed into the bloodstream until the plasma levels reach the renal reabsorbtion threshold, which is around 1.5 - 1.3 mg/dL of ascorbic acid in humans. The number would vary from animal to animal, depending on size and activity. The seminiferous tubules, inside the testicles (where sperm is produced) can absorb the ascorbic acid when needed*
blood-group antigens (from immune system) --- These are blood type enzymes, which are obviously found in the blood. If the vampire drinks the blood of an ape, it already has one of the human ABO blood types and nothing needs to be changed. If they never drink the blood of a human 或者 ape, the blood sugars will need to redistribute themselves somewhere in the body to become an ABO blood type. All blood type enzymes in any animal are composed of fucose, galactose, glucose, acetyglucosamine, and lipids. The difference in human blood type is determined 由 the addition of 更多 galactose 或者 acetyglucosamine. As long as these are formed in the body and absorbed into the seminiferous tubules, it should contribute to the creation of sperm.*
calcium (mineral) --- Most of your body’s calcium is stored in the bone, but the rest is stored in the blood
chlorine (oxidizing agent) --- Chloride is one of the most important minerals in the blood. This can be easily found in any animal’s blood.
cholesterol (steroid alcohol present in body fluids) --- Cholesterol is a waxy steroid metabolite found in the cell membranes and transported in the blood plasma of all animals. This can also be easily found in the blood.
choline (base, part of the vitamin B complex) --- Choline can be extracted from the blood using sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3 , all of which can be found in the blood of all animals). Once the choline is separated from the blood, in can be absorbed 由 the seminiferous tubules and made into sperm.
citric acid (occurs during cellular metabolism) --- Citric acid is filtered from the blood 由 the kidneys. It would be especially good to find an animal suffering from proximal renal tubular acidosis because their blood would be very high in citric acid, and the animal would be wear and fatigues, meaning easy prey when hunting.
creatine (nitrogenous substance found in muscle) --- Creatine is transported through the blood for use 由 the muscles
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA – sugar and phosphate) --- “Vampire venom is not merely an organic chemical substance, it is actually a fluid-based lifeform. It also behaves like a virus or, 更多 specifically, a retrovirus. It will attach itself to a host cell, sometimes shrinking to the size of a virus 或者 most likely dividing itself into many virus sized molecular structures and attaching themselves to the host cell's membrane. The venom-virus then infects the host cell, making a DNA copy of the genome for use in making RNA... On one hand, the genome is thoroughly checked for anomalies in the DNA and can 更多 likely spare the expense of ATP in these checks because of the plethora of energy in a "pure" cell. On the other hand, the DNA readily accepts foreign DNA if it mutates a cell for the betterment of its new host. The DNA of that cell is able to convert both unique venom, incorporating the DNA changes of both into the host cell.”
This is basically saying that when a vampire is infected with venom, the venom (or retrovirus) changes the genetic structure of the already existing cells. The 吸血鬼 already have their very own vampire DNA stored all throughout their body. They don’t necessarily need to obtain DNA. It’s already present in the body, but since a vampire’s body absorbs various nutrients and whatnot from the blood they drink, the vampire’s DNA mutates the foreign animal DNA into something it can use itself. For a male vampire to reproduce, his body can either include the DNA already in his body 或者 the seminiferous tubules can absorb the mutated foreign animal DNA from the consumed blood (The same thing applies to humans who eat meat)
fructose (sugar used for energy) --- Fructose is 水果 sugar which is gained 由 eating fruit. studies indicate that fructose is not completely absorbed in the small intestine. When fructose is not absorbed in the small intestine, it is transported into the large intestine, where it is fermented 由 the colonic flora. Hydrogen is produced during the fermentation process and dissolves into the blood of the portal vein. As long as the vampire has eaten an animal that has eating fruit, there will be fructose in his body.
glutathione (peptide amino acid) --- Glutathione is not gained through food, so it’s possible for a vampire to already have this nutrient in the body. If not, it is synthesized as a free amino acid that is stored in an animal’s gastrointestinal tract and blood plasma.
inositol ( C6H12O6) --- Inositol is a compound composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, which can all be found in the blood of any animal.
lactic acid (byproduct of muscle use C3H6O3) --- The concentration of lactate in the blood is usually 1–2 mmol/L at rest, but can rise to over 20 mmol/L during intense exertion.
magnesium (mineral) --- Magnesium travels through the blood to the kidney’s where it is then filtered. Half the blood in an animal’s blood remains unfiltered the kidneys.
nitrogen (gas found in all living tissue) --- Any animal will have a lot of nitrogen in its blood because only half of it hasn’t been carried to the lungs yet where it is filtered and used. (Nitrogen rides around in the blood stream until it reaches the lungs)
phosporus (mineral) --- Average phosphorus concentration in the blood is about 0.4 g/L, about 70% of that is organic and 30% inorganic phosphates. A small amount of phosphorus constantly circulates through an animal’s blood.
potassium (mineral) --- Potassium is stored in every cell in the body, including blood cells, which means that 吸血鬼 should already have potassium in their body, plus, they can gain it from the blood they drink from animals.
purine (compound of uric acid) --- Purine is also stored in every cell in the body, so the above applies here as well.
pyruvic acid (formed from either glucose 或者 glycogen) --- Pyruvic acid travels through the blood of an animal to muscles, where it is stored.
sodium (salt) --- 85% of sodium in the body is stored in the blood.
spermidine (catalytic enzyme) and spermine (ammonia compound)– --- These are both found in robosomes, which are organelles found in all body cells. 吸血鬼 already possess cells in their bodies, 或者 they can obtain them from the blood cells from the 动物 they drink.
urea (from urine) --- Urea is produced in the liver and dissolves into the blood, where it’s carried to and extracted 由 the kidneys and made into a component of urine.
uric acid (from urine) --- Uric acid is absorbed into an animal’s blood from the purine-rich foods they eat, such as fish, beans, peas, Mushrooms, spinach, asparagus, cauliflower, and organ meat. A vampire can get a sufficient amount of uric acid from drinking the blood of any animal, should it be a vegetarian 或者 a meat eater.
vitamin B12 (for proper function of nervous system and metabolism) --- The normal blood level of vitamin B12 in an animal ranges between 200 and 600 picogram/milliliter (148-443 picomol/liter).
zinc (mineral) --- Some zinc is stored in blood cells.
Semen is made up of:
Mostly water --- About 40%-50% of blood is water. Where
A mixture of amino acids (proteins) --- Amino acids are collected from the 食物 你 eat, and are composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen.
Carbon and oxygen can be taken from the carbon dioxide (CO2) in the blood they ingest.
Hydrogen can be gathered from the hydrogen ions.
There will be a lot of nitrogen in the blood because only half of it hasn’t been carried to the lungs yet. (Nitrogen just rides around in the blood stream until it reaches the lungs)
Carbohydrates (sugars) --- All carbohydrates are broken down into glucose through the process of digestion. Once the glucose leaves the intestines, it is sent through the blood stream to the various organs and tissues that need it
As long as a vampire drinks the blood of an animal that has recently eater, he will drink the carbohydrates as well.
Now that we have all the ingredients needed for the body to produce sperm and semen, we need to determine how it’s produced.
Semen if formed in the male gonads (testacies). 你 may wonder how the gonads even function if Edward is dead.
Obviously, some parts of a vampire’s body functions. Their nervous system functions much higher than ours does. They can hear and see. They have a sense of smell. They can feel. The human brain sends signals using neuron cell axons, which bundle together to form what we all know of as nerves.
Roughly 20% of the blood in the human body is used 由 the brain, so this explains why 吸血鬼 need blood to function, since they lack their own supply. The blood absorbed 由 the brain gives it the ability to send nerves thorough the body.
Now that we know how the vampire nervous system is possible, we need to know how the gonads will function. This excerpt from Stephenie Meyer’s website implies that only the very essential parts of the body will function for a vampire.
“ A fluid similar to the venom in their mouths work as a lubricant between the cells, which makes movement possible (note: this fluid is very flammable). A fluid similar to the same venom lubricates their eyes so that their eyes can 移动 easily in their sockets. (However, they don't produce tears because tears exist to protect the eye from damage, and nothing is going to be able to scratch a vampire's eye.) The lubricant-venom in the eyes and skin is not able to infect a human the way saliva-venom can. Similarly, throughout the vampire's body are many versions of venom-based fluids that retain a marked resemblance to the fluid that was replaced, and function in much the same way and toward the same purpose. Though there is no venom replacement that works precisely like blood, many of the functions of blood are carried on in some form. Also, the nervous system runs in a slightly different but heightened way. Some involuntary reactions, like breathing, continue (in that specific example because 吸血鬼 use the scents in the air much 更多 than we do, rather than out of a need for oxygen). Other involuntary reactions, like blinking, don't exist because there is no purpose for them.”
All beings have a natural instinct to keep their species alive 由 reproduction. Humans and 动物 have sexual intercourse. 花 pollinate. Trees and bushes produce seeds. Cells go through mitosis.
Since 吸血鬼 don’t really exist, nobody can say, as a fact, that 吸血鬼 can’t reproduce.
We can, however, theorize. Let’s compare vampire bodies to human bodies, since they all used to be human and had a normal human body at one point. When a male human body (we’re not sexist… We’re focusing on males because male 吸血鬼 are the only 吸血鬼 can reproduce) believes it’s going to engage in intercourse, blood is pumped through the body to the penis to prepare it for intercourse.
We can assume that since arousal is possible in vampires, something happens inside their body, probably because of the natural survival instincts present in all beings. Since a vampire’s penis doesn’t need to be prepared for sex (we’ll explain why in our 下一个 point) we can guess that the foreign blood stored in the body will make it’s was over to the gonads so it can prepare all the necessary fluids during the state of arousal. It only takes a few 分钟 for a man’s body to create sperm.
How does Edward get an erection?
An erection is the hardening and extension of the penis. Erections are not needed to have sex. Erections only facilitate sex (makes it easier).
For an average guy, the penis is a soft organ. A guy can still orgasm and ejaculate with a soft penis. An average human male having sex with a flaccid penis (possible for those with ED) can be painful and can take away from the sexual experience, but it’s also possible to have sex without pleasure. The only purpose of an erection is to protect the penis from the all the pain caused 由 the pressure and other wild action going on around it. In Edward’s case, his penis is already hard, like the rest of his skin. It doesn’t need to harden and grow. The pressure from Bella’s vagina is not going to hurt Edward at all.
If Edward the vampire's skin is always rock-hard anyway, does that mean he's just walking around with a constant erection?
Twilight 吸血鬼 don’t have erections all the time because there is nothing inside of their penis preventing it from being flaccid. It’s just the skin that is hard. Their arms and legs aren’t stuck in one position (because their skin is composed squamous epithelium, just like humans), why would their penis?
How did the venom not hurt Bella in anyway?
Here is another excerpt from Stephenie Meyer’s website
“ Like with vampire skin—which looks similar to human skin and has the same basic function—fluids closely related to seminal fluids still exist in male vampires, which carry genetic information and are capable of bonding with a human ovum.
So yes, vampire semen is referred to as a form of venom, but here is yet another excerpt from Stephenie Meyer’s website.
“ A fluid similar to the venom in their mouths work as a lubricant between the cells, which makes movement possible (note: this fluid is very flammable). A fluid similar to the same venom lubricates their eyes so that their eyes can 移动 easily in their sockets. (However, they don't produce tears because tears exist to protect the eye from damage, and nothing is going to be able to scratch a vampire's eye.) The lubricant-venom in the eyes and skin is not able to infect a human the way saliva-venom can.”
This suggests that saliva venom is the only type of venom that is actually infections. It makes sense that not all venom would be infectious. Not all venom in the real world is infectious 或者 poisonous either. All snakes and spiders bite and inject venom into their victim, but only a select few breeds of snakes and spiders can actually harm 你 with their venom.
Going back to the statement of 吸血鬼 only having involuntary bodily functions that are necessary, a vampire’s seminal venom not being infectious makes even 更多 sense.
Vampire saliva serves a different purpose than human saliva. Human saliva’s purpose is to begin the process of digestion 由 breaking down 食物 and to lubricate and reduce discomfort. 吸血鬼 don’t need to break down 食物 或者 be worried about having a dry mouth. The purpose of the saliva venom is to infect other people, so it’s only natural that it be infectious.
The purpose of vampire semen and other lubrication venom is not to infect, but to carry genetic information and lubricate, so it’s only natural that it not be infectious.
Bella drinking blood to feed the baby. Not only is it extremely gross, but didn't Bella feel faint at the sight of blood?
It’s probably normal for a woman to watch what she eats and to not exactly want to gain weight, but during pregnancy, most women get cravings to eat and eat. Sometimes they get cravings for 食物 they would normally avoid at all costs. The reason for this is for the body to make sure that they get enough nutrients for themselves and the baby living inside of them. Since Renesmee drinks blood, it makes sense that Bella would develop a craving and a tolerance for blood, since that’s what her baby needs.
Why doesn’t Renesmee have Down Syndrome 或者 a physical mutation?
This is from Wikipedia
“Down syndrome is a chromosomal condition characterized 由 the presence of an extra copy of genetic material on the 21st chromosome, either in whole (trisomy 21) 或者 part (such as due to translocations). The effects and extent of the extra copy vary greatly among people, depending on genetic history, and pure chance.“
密码 being “copy”
In Twilight, the 吸血鬼 don’t have a duplicate of the 21st chromosome. The venom somehow inserts an extra, brand new chromosome (that did not previously exist in the body) that has the ability to stand on its own.
Even if 你 still believe that an extra chromosome, no matter how sustainable it is, would cause a physical mutation and/or a mental disability, let me remind 你 that the vampires’ eyes change colors, their skin changes color, their features shift into a 更多 “appropriate” position, and they no longer need real 食物 to survive. That sounds a tad mutated to me. Also remember that some 吸血鬼 have special mental abilities. (referring to them as abilities 或者 disabilities is debatable)
Please don’t ask how this is possible. It’s not, but nobody 说 it’s supposed to be. Twilight 吸血鬼 don’t exist in the human world, so 你 can’t expect it to be 100% possible.
This, my friends, is what we like to call “link”.
THE MORAL ISSUE
People have stated that they don’t like how Bella got pregnant in her teen years, before receiving an education.
The main issues people tend to have with teen pregnancy are:
*The effects it has on the futures of the parents (education)
*Mentality (partying, drinking habits)
*Knowledge of childcare.
*Studies that 显示 that girls who were born to teenage mothers are eventually following the same route
Many of these points don’t apply at all to Edward and Bella.
First of all, they did not create a new life intentionally. They didn’t even know it was possible, so there was no need for birth control. They weren’t a couple of irresponsible teenagers. Besides, they were both legal adults, and married.
The effects it has on the futures of the parents (education)
*Edward already has a lot of education, 更多 education than any human needs. Bella knows she’s going to become a vampire. She has all the time in the world to go to college as many times as she desires.
Bella even 说 that she intended to go to college.
Eclipse, Chapter 1, pgs 23-24
“Don’t start. I agree that I need to go through the motions for Charlie’s sake, but we both know I’m not going to be in any condition to go to school 下一个 fall. To be anywhere near people.”
My knowledge of those first few years as a new vampire was sketchy. Edward had never gone into details – it wasn’t his 最喜爱的 subject – but I knew it wasn’t pretty. Self-control was apparently an acquired skill. Anything 更多 than correspondence school was out of the question.
“I thought the timing was still undecided,” Edward reminded me softly. “You might enjoy a semester 或者 two of college. There are a lot of human experiences you’ve never had.”
“I’ll get to those afterward.”
“They won’t be human experiences afterward. 你 don’t get a 秒 chance at humanity, Bella.”
We all know that Edward was just trying to get Bella to wait. An education is an education, no matter if you’re human 或者 a vampire. It’s all the same in the end.
The Cullens are a very wealthy family. They’re not going to kick Edward out of the house because he got Bella pregnant. They won’t have to suffer and scrounge up enough money for diapers 或者 rent. The Cullens have so much money to spare, they could probably take in 50 children and comfortably support each one financially for their entire childhood.
Neither Edward nor Bella really need a career, but they can obtain one easily, if they want to, just as Carlisle did.
Mentality (partying, drinking habits)
I’m sure Edward grew out of the partying and drinking phase long ago, if he ever entered one. Bella never entered this phase. Neither of them ever felt the need to go out and be “typical” teenagers who go out every night and get drunk on the weekends, so they wouldn’t have any inclination to start after having a baby, just because someone they know decides to throw a house party.
Knowledge of childcare.
These two points are the only ones that may apply. None of the Cullens know what it is like to raise a baby. Esme may have a slight clue, but her baby dies very young, so she doesn’t have much experience, but this does not apply to only teen parents, it applies to all first time parents. 你 learn as 你 go. Only children, 或者 oldest of their siblings aren’t all messed up because their parent was just learning how to care for a child.
Studies that 显示 that girls who were born to teenage mothers are eventually following the same route
Even if this were to happen, I’m not convinced that it would be a horrible thing, for the exact same reasons that justify Bella’s pregnancy with Remesmee.
The only problem that I (Cassie) personally have with Bella’s pregnancy with Renesmee was that Edward and Bella were still in their honeymoon phase. They were newlyweds who wanted to spend every moment together as an actual married couple. They didn’t spend as much time with her as an experienced married couple would have, but I do believe they spent a great deal of time with their baby.
I realize that some people may still have issues with Bella’s pregnancy, and if it’s something other than “I just think It’s weird” please leave your issue in the comments. We’re honestly curious.
Why did Meyer make it so that only male 吸血鬼 can have children? That’s so sexist!!
It’s a scientific fact that women can only conceive a child a few days out of the 月 and a male can fertilize a fertile female at any 给 time, any 日 of the year. A man can get 20 women pregnant in one day, if he wants to.
THIS IS NOT STEPHENIE MEYER’S FAULT
你 can blame whoever it is 你 believe created humans.
We think it’s plausible for a female vampire to become pregnant if she is changed into a vampire while ovulating, but she wouldn’t be able to carry a child. In order for a woman to carry a baby, their body would be forced to physically change. Since a vampire stops growing, it cannot grow to accommodate a fetus. A woman’s uterus would need to expand and her pelvic 识骨寻踪 would shift. If a female vampire were to become pregnant and a fetus started growing inside of her uterus, her uterus would not expand and the baby would not have room to grow. Depending on the density of the baby’s skin, it would either stop growing altogether, 或者 crumble/get squished inside of the mother. The only way to remove baby would be to have another vampire tear open her uterus, reach in, and pull out the dead, underdeveloped fetus.
That’s not very pleasant…
Here’s a link on vampire genetics. We weren’t exactly sure where this belongs in this article, so we just added it to the end.
And here’s link.